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Briefly about neurofeedback training

Training adapted to personal assessment

During neurofeedback, EEG measurements are taken of the brain's electrical activity via electrodes, giving the trainee feedback on his or her brain activity. It is a therapeutic process whereby the individual is able to learn and change their brainwave patterns.

During the training, the person watches a DVD film or animation, which he or she controls with his or her own brainwaves, so that he or she can influence his or her mental, thought, emotional and emotional states, changing them at the right moment, for example, to work more efficiently.

Our system can be used to test practically all the usual frequency ranges (delta (<4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-25 Hz divided into beta-1/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), 12-15 Hz, and beta-2, 15-25 Hz), gamma (38-50 Hz up to 150 Hz), in terms of frequency strength (how much a frequency range is present) and localisation (even in real time due to the use of NF).

What makes our service special is the individualized training for each area and the simultaneous alteration of the whole brain electrical pattern.

Most neurofeedback training providers do not have equipment to monitor the whole brain.

Areas of use

Image by Stefan Cosma

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning difficulties (ADHD)

Improving attention skills. Since the late 1970s, neurofeedback treatments have been tested on people with attention deficit disorder and learning difficulties. Dr Joel Lubar and his colleagues (Lubar et al. 1995), as well as many others, have demonstrated through clinical tests that it is possible to retrain the brain. A recent study by Levesque (Levesque, Beauregard & Mensour, 2006) documented positive changes in brain function after neurofeedback treatment in children with attention deficit disorder using functional MRI neuroimaging.

Rossiter and LaVaque (1995) demonstrated that improvements in attention and focus resulting from as little as 20 neurofeedback sessions were comparable to those resulting from the drug Ritalin (without any of its adverse side effects), while other researchers (Monastra et al, 2002) found that neurofeedback resulted in more pronounced improvements than Ritalin.

Research on ADHD has been ongoing since the 1970s and has shown that children and adults typically have high theta activity in the frontocentral areas at rest, which is essentially due to reduced cortical activity (low arousal). However, high theta activity is also characteristic of other neurological disorders (e.g. epilepsy).

Because of the link between high theta activity and the attentional processes in the beta frequency range, the ratio of these (theta/beta ratio, θ/β) has been studied most and it has been shown that high θ/β is associated with faster reaction times in experimental situations in both healthy individuals and ADHD patients. However, this type of faster reaction is associated with higher error rates and impulsivity and in ADHD, the θ/β is also much higher in resting conditions. θ/β is probably the most robust EEG result within the age range, but research is ongoing for other frequency ranges and evoked potentials.

In the light of these and other studies, it can be argued that neurofeedback is an important and effective alternative therapy for people with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Neurofeedback treatment has been shown to result in lower hyperactivity, impulsivity, higher mood stability, better sleep quality, higher concentration and focus, increased memory and better academic performance. It is noteworthy that several studies on attention deficit disorder and learning difficulties have shown that an increase in intelligence quotient (IQ) is also observed after neurofeedback treatment. The increase ranged from an average of 9 points (Linden et al., 1996), through 12 and 19 points (Thompson and Thompson, 1998 and Tansey, 1990) to 23 IQ points (Othmer and Kaiser, 1999).



Reducing the severity and frequency of migraine attacks. Othmer was one of the first to successfully use neurofeedback for migraine. For left-sided headaches, patients were taught to reduce 2-7 Hz and high beta activity and increase 15-18 Hz, while for right-sided headaches, similarly, low and high frequency activity was trended down and 12-15 Hz up (Othmer, 1994).

A slightly modified version of the above mentioned training, where theta (4-7Hz) activity was trained down and SMR (12-15Hz) activity was trained up, has also been shown to be effective in alleviating headaches (Tansy, 1991). Phase training of the T3-T4 points of the two hemispheres has also been found to be effective in migraine with good effects on mood (Othmer and Othmer,2001). Training of slow cortical activity control in migraine (without aura) children has been successfully used to eliminate pain with 10 sessions (Siniatchkin et al.,2000 ).

A more recent study in 2011 involved 71 people diagnosed with migraine (without aura), 46 of whom received neurofeedback training and 25 of whom chose conventional medication (Walker, 2011). In neurofeedback, they were taught to reduce activity at 21-30Hz and increase activity at 10Hz, with 5 sessions per hemisphere of the hemisphere affected by pain. In the neurofeedback training group, the majority (54%) reported a complete cessation of pain, many (39%) reported a reduction in pain frequency by more than 50%, and some (4%) reported a reduction in pain incidence by less than 50%. In the medication group, the majority (68%) did not experience a reduction in pain frequency, a few (20%) experienced a reduction of less than 50% in pain frequency, and only a few (8%) experienced more than 50% of symptoms.


Epilepsy, Brain Injury and Stroke

Reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures with medication. Uncontrolled epileptic seizures can also be effectively treated with neurofeedback training. Neurofeedback has been shown to be useful in relieving all types of epilepsy.

Studies have been carried out mainly on patients with more severe forms of epilepsy and have shown that neurofeedback treatment has resulted in an average 70% reduction in epileptic seizures and in many cases has also reduced the need for medication. Walker and Kozlowski (2005) found in their study that 90% of patients became symptom-free after neurofeedback training.

There have been several studies on the possibility of neurofeedback in the treatment of brain injury (Ayers, 1987, 1991, 1999; Bounias et al. 2001, 2002; Keller, 2001) and stroke (Bearden et al. 2003; Putnam, 2001; Wing, 2001). We believe that neurofeedback is a useful therapeutic option to assist in the rehabilitation of such patients.


Alcohol and drug dependence

EEG studies have shown that people with alcohol dependence (and their children) have low Alpha and Theta brainwave levels and high Beta brainwave levels. This suggests that relaxation and unwinding may be a problem for people with alcohol dependence. However, after alcohol use, Alpha and Theta brainwave levels are elevated. As such, individuals who are biologically predisposed to becoming alcohol dependent (and their children) are particularly vulnerable because, without realising it, they are trying to self-medicate through the effects of alcohol. The relaxed mental state that occurs after alcohol ingestion only reinforces the effectiveness of such self-management.

Neurofeedback treatment to increase Alpha and Theta brainwaves and decrease Beta brainwaves is used to teach alcohol addicts to reduce stress and achieve a relaxed state. Research shows promising potential for neurofeedback as an adjunctive treatment. Peniston and Kulkosky (1989) used neurofeedback to treat alcohol addicts. After only 30 neurofeedback sessions, significant improvements in Alpha and Theta brainwave levels were measured. At the 4-year follow-up, 80% of the group had not relapsed into alcohol dependence (compared to 20% for the control group receiving conventional treatment).


Peak performance training

Improving the concentration needed to carry out everyday tasks. The two big general groups of skills that can be improved during neurofeedback are attention and concentration skills and relaxation/stress tolerance skills. Developing these two groups of skills together can be mutually reinforcing. It makes sense that being able to remain calm in stressful situations will allow you to focus your attention more effectively, as well as allowing you to express your creativity more easily. This kind of conscious control of skills can be a particular advantage for a leader, artist or athlete. These trainings are called peak performance trainings. Some of the achievements of athletes that neurofeedback training has contributed to:

  • AC Milan winning the 2007 FIFA World Cup

  • The 2008 Beijing Olympic gold medal for Indian shooter Abhinav Bindra

  • Canada's Alexandre Bilodeau's gold medal at the 2010 Winter Olympics.


Other uses of neurofeedback training

We can also help you with everyday stress management problems and develop relaxation skills.

In addition, research has shown (Hammond, 2005; Moore, 2000) the effectiveness of neurofeedback in the treatment of excessive, morbid anxiety, and it has also been used to treat depression (Baehr, Rosenfeld, 2001; Hammond, 2001), chronic fatigue syndrome (Hammond, 2001), sleep disorders, autism (Jarusiuwicz, 2002), tinnitus (Gosepath et al, 2001, Schenk et al, 2005), physical balance and stroke (Ayers, 2004).

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